SC22/WG20 N935

Status of Unicode Standards Annexes, Technical Standards, Technical Reports, and Technical Notes

April 29, 2002


The links on this page will always point to the most current version of the document on the Unicode web site. 



Standard Annexes

UAX #9: The Bidirectional Algorithm

UAX #11: East Asian Width

UAX #13: Unicode Newline Guidelines

UAX #14: Line Breaking Properties

UAX #15: Unicode Normalization Forms

UAX #19: UTF-32

UAX #21: Case Mappings

UAX #27: Unicode 3.1

UAX #28: Unicode 3.2



Technical Standards

UTS #6: A Standard Compression Scheme for Unicode

UTS #10: Unicode Collation Algorithm



Technical Reports


UTR #17: Character Encoding Model

UTR #18: Unicode Regular Expression Guidelines

UTR #20: Unicode in XML and other Markup Languages

UTR #22: Character Mapping Tables

UTR #24: Script Names

UTR #26: Compatibility Encoding Scheme for UTF-16: 8-Bit (CESU-8)




DUTR #25: Unicode Support for Mathematics



Proposed Draft

PDUTR #23: Character Properties

PDUTR #29: Text Boundaries



Proposed Updates

UTS #6: A Standard Compression Scheme for Unicode




UTR #1:  Proposals for Burmese (Myanmar), Khmer, and Ethiopian


UTR #2: Proposals for Sinhala, Mongolian, and Tibetan


UTR #3: Proposals for Less Common Scripts


UTR #4:  The Unicode Standard, Version 1.1


UTR #5:  Handling Non-Spacing Marks


UTR #7: Plane 14 Characters for Language Tags


UTR #8: The Unicode Standard, Version 2.1


UTR #12: Withdrawn



Related Links

Unicode Technical Notes



A Unicode Technical Report (UTR) may contain either informative material or normative specifications, or both. Each UTR may specify a base version of the Unicode Standard. In that case, conformance to the UTR requires conformance to that version of the standard or higher.

There are two specially distinguished types of approved Unicode Technical Reports that are given more authoritative status by the Unicode Consortium.

A Unicode Standard Annex (UAX) forms an integral part of the Unicode Standard, but is published as a separate document. Note that conformance to a version of the Unicode Standard includes conformance to its Unicode Standard Annexes. The version number of a UAX document corresponds to the version number of the Unicode Standard at the last point that the UAX document was updated.

A Unicode Technical Standard (UTS) is an independent specification. Conformance to the Unicode Standard does not imply conformance to any UTS. Each UTS specifies a base version of the Unicode Standard.

As technical reports are developed, the Unicode Technical Committee approves the posting of preliminary versions for public review. Publication of these draft versions does not imply endorsement by the Unicode Consortium.

A Draft Unicode Technical Report (DUTR) has the basic structure and content required, but still is not ready for final approval.

A Proposed Draft Unicode Technical Report (PDUTR) is in the earliest stages of development.

Both Draft and Proposed Draft Unicode Technical Reports are preliminary documents which may be updated, replaced, or superseded by other documents at any time. They are not stable specifications; it is inappropriate to cite them as other than works in progress:

Earlier approved technical reports may be incorporated into The Unicode Standard or superseded by newer Unicode technical reports. These are marked as Superseded. However, archival versions of all approved versions of all technical reports either are maintained on the Unicode web site or are available from the Unicode Consortium in paper copy upon request.

Certain technical reports were withdrawn before ever being approved. Such withdrawn technical reports are not available. To prevent confusion, their numbers are not reused.




Uniform and persistent tracking numbers are used for all Unicode Technical Reports, even in the case when a Unicode Technical Report changes its status to a UAX or a UTS. This tracking number is incremented and a new URL is provided each time the file is altered. Each file has links to the previous approved version of the report and to the latest approved version of the report, allowing readers to find and cite particular versions.

·         For a UAX, the version number is of the form “Unicode 3.0.1” to reflect the fact that it is now part of a given version of the Unicode Standard.

·         For other UTRs (including UTSs), the version number of the report is identical to the tracking number.

For more information about citing versions of Unicode Technical Reports, see Versions of the Unicode Standard.